There are two types of professional dental cleaning procedures. One is dental prophylaxis i.e. regular cleaning, and the second type is scaling and root planning, which is referred as a deep cleaning.
Scaling / oral prophylaxis is done by using ultrasonic scalers. Ultrasonic scalers are used to remove tartar (calculus) rapidly from the tooth surface. The scaling tip vibrates in the ultrasonic range of 20-45 kHz (i.e. 20,000 to 45,000 times per second), with an optimum frequency between 18 kHz and 32kHz. It gives fast & effective scaling just by a light touch for very short time on tooth along with a water coolant. Professional dental cleaning removes plaque, tarter, and calculus, and polishes your teeth better than you could do at home on your own. The goal of dental cleaning is to provide the patients with plaque and tarter free teeth and reveal healthy, bright, and beautiful smile that can enhance your confidence and personality.
After scaling, the teeth require polishing to remove the roughness and the extrinsic stains that are present on the surface. Common practice is to use a prophy cup, a small motorized rubber cup, along with an abrasive polishing compound. Prophylactic paste contains abrasives that vary in size, shape, and hardness.; Polishing pastes are available in various grits and flavours which can keep your mouth fresh for the rest of the day. Some prophylactic pastes contain fluoride to aid in the remineralization of the enamel surface and others help reduce dentinal sensitivity. Post scaling it is recommended to do the fluoride treatments by using dental arch shaped trays. Fluoride application can aid in prevention of dental caries. Children should be treated by fluoride application for prevention of dental caries and are told not to eat, drink, or rinse for about 30 minutes after the application to ensure the maximum effects.
The more professional cleaning and care is provided by root planing, that is recommended when patients have a lot of calculous deposited under the gums with lot of inflammation with bleeding on brushing. The extent of inflammation can give rise to the gap formation between the tooth and the gums, called pockets, which occur mainly due to bone loss in that region. Gum disease starts mainly from the plaque deposition forming on your teeth, but if they aren’t cleaned well, the bacteria in plaque can inflame your gums. When this happens, your gums get pulled away and create the pockets. Plaque that is trapped in the pockets become sticky by addition of number of sticky layers, thus become thick and tough to be removed by regular brushing. If untreated, it leads to bone loss and ultimately the tooth loss.
Your doctor will measure the pocket depth and conclude the extent of the disease and accordingly will prescribe the medication ad the treatment. If gum disease is caught early and hasn’t damaged the structures below the gum line, a professional cleaning should do. If the pockets between your gums and teeth are too deep, however, scaling and root planing may be needed.
For gum disease there are different surgical procedures to be done like curettage, gigivectomy, flap surgery, ferectomy, mucogingival surgeries, vestibuoplasty etc. They are having specific indications to treat the problems.